科技 新浪科技 Light人物:專訪美、德、俄等多國院士Dieter Bimberg

Light人物:專訪美、德、俄等多國院士Dieter Bimberg

原標題:Light人物:專訪美、德、俄等多國院士Dieter Bimberg

原創 長光所Light中心 中國光學 收錄于話題#Light人物6個

Light記者 | 郭宸孜

編者按

很榮幸能夠邀請到半導體激光領域的領軍科學家,德國科學院院士、美國國家工程院院士、俄羅斯科學院院士,Light Conference 2018大會主席和《eLight》編委,年近八十歲還在滑雪、潛水等極限運動的人生贏家——Dieter Bimberg接受我的採訪。一直以來,Dieter Bimberg院士給我的印象是:

一、大佬風範,並不僅限於他三院院士和學術泰斗的身份,更多的是他海納百川有容乃大的處事風格,永遠都耐心傾聽和思考別人的意見,並對青年科學家和晚輩給予格外的支持。

二、年輕、富有探索精神,在工作和生活中,都保持著充沛的精力和對新鮮事物的渴望。

三、品位高,對研究和食物以及音樂等有著極高的品位。

在這次採訪中,Dieter Bimberg院士就量子點激光器和半導體激光器中的關鍵問題,做出了討論和回答;並分享了其作為美國工程院外籍院士委員會、IEEE光子學會會士評委會主席等,在選拔成員或會士時,比較看重的因素;此外,Dieter Bimberg院士還分享了其對於Light會議和線上會議的看法,以及在極限運動方面的有趣體驗。最後,Dieter Bimberg院士給出了自己認為在撰寫學術著作時的重要考量,並向半導體激光器、納米光子學器件、納米材料和納米結構專業的學生推薦了一些書籍。

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Dieter Bimberg

Dieter Bimberg,德國科學院院士、美國國家工程院院士、歐洲科學院院士、俄羅斯科學院院士、美國發明院院士。先後擔任德國亞琛工業大學教授、德國柏林工業大學教授、加州大學聖塔芭芭拉分校和惠普公司客座教授等,曾任德國聯邦納米技術卓越中心主席,是柏林工業大學納米光子學中心的創始人,現任中科院長春光機所中德綠色光子學研究中心主任。Dieter Bimberg是量子點激光器的發明人之一,縱向光子晶體激光器概念的提出者,高速面發射激光器低功耗紀錄創造者,是半導體激光領域的頂尖科學家。Dieter Bimberg院士發表了超過16000篇論文,61個專利,6本書,總引用量6.4萬次,H因子高達111,為ISI web of knowledge高引作者,曾獲俄羅斯國家科學技術獎,馬克斯·玻恩獎, William Streifer獎,Heinrich-Welker獎,Nick Holonyak Jr.獎,以及聯合國教科文組織納米科學獎章等。

深度專訪

Chenzi Guo: With Quantum dots (QDs) being discovered with high gain in 1990s, you were among the first to lead the research of QDs and invented QD lasers in the early 1990s. In the past decades, QD lasers have attracted enormous attention, what were the major difficulties when you worked on QD lasers. Do you have any intended ideas for QD lasers which have not been explored or realized yet?

Dieter Bimberg: The material gain of QDs is sensationally large, as discovered by us in 1993 and much larger than theoretically predicted by a team from Tokyo Institute of Technology in the 80s. The waveguide of a laser, where the light travels, shows absorption and scattering losses, which partly counterbalance the gain. The difficulty was to achieve a positive balance. We managed by stacking QD layers on top of each other without introducing crystal defects, up to ten for practical lasers. Secondly, we discovered how to grow low loss waveguides and avoid scattering of light in the waveguide, meaning minimize the losses.

We are working at CIOMP on QD lasers for automotive applications like LIDAR or sensing in a wavelength window predicted to show largest eye safety and largest range in foggy air. This window is not accessible to classical double heterostructure lasers based on GaAs or InP.

《Light》記者:高增益量子點(QD)于上世紀90年代被發現,您是最早引領量子點研究的人之一,並於90年代初發明了量子點激光器。在過去的幾十年裡,量子點激光器引起了極大的關注,您能否談談在研究量子點激光器時遇到的主要困難是什麼?您當初對量子點激光器的哪些設想還有哪些尚未探索或實現的呢?

Dieter Bimberg:我們團隊在1993年發現,量子點材料的增益高的驚人,這比80年代東京工業大學研究組的理論預測值要大的多。激光波導的吸收和散射損耗,在一定程度上抵消了增益,因此獲取高增益的主要困難正在於此。首先,我們通過將量子點層疊在一起(可以實現多達10層的量子點層疊)而不引入晶體缺陷。其次,我們發現了如何生長低損耗的波導,避免光在波導中的散射,這意味著可以將損耗最小化。現在,我們在長春光機所的團隊正在研究用於汽車應用的量子點激光器,如激光雷達或是在人眼最安全的波長範圍內、在有霧天氣實現最大射程的感測,而這樣的波段,通常是無法用基於GaAs或InP的經典雙異質結激光器來實現的。

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Dieter Bimberg院士與中科院長春光機所所長賈平簽署中德綠色光子學研究中心合約

Chenzi Guo: QD lasers have shown great promise in silicon photonics and are among the game changers in integrated optics. In the communication bands, QD lasers have stood out in practical use. Could you share some opinions about the trend of QD lasers and semiconductor lasers, in both researches and industries? What are the major obstacles in QD lasers applied in silicon photonics, and what cross-disciplines should be involved but were not paid enough attention?

Dieter Bimberg: The term 『silicon photonics』 refers to integrating passive optical or still active devices like lasers based on III-V-compounds monolithically on Si and thus enabling an integrated technology, which would be advantageous from many different points of view. A lot of research in the last 10 years focused on growing QD layers on large Si substrates, thus enabling to fabricate lasers on Si substrates. After surmounting many difficulties presently, a number of groups all over the world have achieved good performance data for edge emitting lasers. Extended lifetime tests, which are finally decisive, are still missing.

Green photonics is presently thought to be a major sunrise direction of R+D with huge impact in particular on communication systems, like workstation clusters or supercomputers. Their energy consumption is now approaching or already surmounting 500 MW for new installations. Most of their energy is spent for interconnects in different distance ranges from module to module to workstation to workstation. Integration of surface emitting lasers on low energy but high-speed drivers based on CMOS technologies would bring at the same time cost and power consumption down. The VCSELs could be either based on QWs or QDs, depending on the expected emission wavelength. We are working on this integration in national and international teams.

《Light》記者:量子點激光器在硅基光子學領域展示出了巨大的發展前景,是影響集成光學領域規則的技術之一。在通信波段,量子點激光器已經在實際應用中大展身手。您能談一談量子點激光器和半導體激光器在研究和工業上的發展趨勢嗎?量子點激光器應用於硅基光子學的主要障礙是什麼?有沒有哪些研究和學科有可能對量子點激光器在硅基光子學的應用產生重要影響但沒有引起足夠重視的呢?

Dieter Bimberg: 「硅基光子學」指的是將基於III-V族化合物的無源光學器件或靜態有源器件(如激光器)整體地集成在硅上,從而實現集成技術,這從多方面來看都是有利的。近10年來,大量的研究集中於在大尺寸的硅襯底上生長量子點層,從而在硅襯底上製造激光器。在克服了許多困難之後,世界各地的一些研究小組已經取得了良好性能的邊緣發射激光器。但是,最終具有決定性意義的延長壽命試驗仍然處於困境。

此外,值得一提的是,綠色光子學被認為是相關科學研究和開發的一個主要趨勢,它將對通信系統,如工作站集群或超級計算機等產生重要影響。這些新裝置的能源消耗現在接近甚至可能超過500兆瓦,這其中,大部分的能耗發生於從模塊到模塊,從工作站到工作站的互連。如果將面發射激光器與CMOS技術集成,可以降低成本和功耗,且VCSEL(垂直腔面發射激光器)可以根據預期的發射波長,採取量子阱或量子點結構。我們正和多個國家的團隊合作,開展這方面的研究。

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在2015年7月英國蘭卡斯特大學的畢業典禮上,Dieter Bimberg院士被授予名譽科學博士

Chenzi Guo: As I know you are a member of US National Academy of Engineering (NAE) board for appointing foreign fellows from underrepresented countries like China, chair of the IEEE Photonics Society fellow appointment board and many other important institutions; I think our audience would love to know how they can get involved, could you please share some insight into what board members value most.

Dieter Bimberg: We stimulate nominations by identifying outstanding researchers and their potential nominators and supporters. In each case it is helpful for a successful nomination to demonstrate a large international impact of the work given e.g. by large citation rates and the Hirsch factor. Previous national recognition of the work is also contributing to the success of a proposal. Writing a nomination is very time consuming and those who believe, they can do it in an afternoon typically fail, but not because of the low quality of the researcher. The success rate is only in the few 10% level, but a submission is valid for several years. At the end a carefully written nomination of an outstanding researcher will pass through. Presently nominations of females are additionally supported by additional slots.

《Light》記者:因為我知道,您是美國國家工程院(NAE)院士,同時是NAE選拔中國等國外籍院士的董事會成員,也是IEEE光子學會選拔會士的委員會主席,並擔任了許多重要機構的委員;我想我們的讀者應該很想知道,他們如何能更好的參与到這些國際頂尖的學協會,能否請您分享一下這些學協會的董事會成員最看重的是什麼。

Dieter Bimberg: 關於會士(院士)選拔,我們通常會關注這些研究人員本身是否傑出,並關注其潛在的提名者和支持者。首先,無論在什麼情況下,如果能夠證明這些研究人員在國際上有巨大影響,比如工作的被引很高,或是H指數很高,都將有助於提名成功。此外,國家對研究人員在工作的認可也有助於提名的成功。其次,撰寫提名這個過程,本身就非常耗時,那些相信他們可以在一個下午寫完的人通常都會失敗,即使提名的研究人員本身素質並不低。通常,這些國際頂尖學術組織的申請成功率只有10%左右,但是申請有效期可以長達幾年。最後,那些本身就十分傑出的研究人員,加上精心撰寫的提名和申請書,一般會通過。此外,我們格外支持對女性科學家的提名。

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Dieter Bimberg院士榮獲IEEE Jun-ichi Nishizawa獎及獎章

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Dieter Bimberg院士榮獲OSA Nick Holonyak Jr.獎

Chenzi Guo: I』ve seen it by myself, you are a very skilled skier, and rumor says you are very proficient at diving, climbing, and some other extreme sports. I think everyone who knows you would feel the youth and strength from the bottom of your heart. How do you balance your life and entertainments? Do you keep adventurous spirits in both life and work?

Dieter Bimberg: You are right, but yourself have also a lot of courage racing down the snowy hills in the vicinity. An old proverb from the Latin period of time says 「mens sana in corpore sano」in rough translation 「a healthy mind resides in a healthy body」and I follow this proverb. Doing sports makes fun and helps a lot to resist the stress from my daily work. At CIOMP I am playing badminton and here in Europe at the end of summer, when you have middle autumn days, I am sailing a catamaran for a few days in the Mediterranean.

《Light》記者:我親眼見證,您的滑雪技巧非常高超,而且據說您也非常精通潛水、攀岩等其他極限運動。我想每個認識你的人都會感受到來自你心底的青春和力量。您是如何平衡您的生活和娛樂的呢?你在生活和工作中都有冒險精神嗎?

Dieter Bimberg:對,有一句來自拉丁語時期的古老諺語:mens sana in corpore sano,可以粗略翻譯為「健康的心靈寓於健康的身體中」,我個人遵循這句諺語。做運動很有趣,對我的日常工作很有幫助。在長春光機所我打羽毛球,在歐洲夏末或是中秋的時候,我會開著雙體船在地中海航行幾天。

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Dieter Bimberg院士與滑雪

Chenzi Guo: You have been deeply involved in Light Conferences, bearing many responsibilities such as Chair and plenary speaker. In this challenging time of COVID-19 pandemic, scientists from all around the world are trying to move things online to keep the business around. Do you appreciate this less face-to-face way? How long do you think this online conference trend will last? Also due to the COVID-19, many universities worldwide are facing a cut down in research funding, and millions of researchers, especially junior researchers would be affected, do you have any advice in helping young researchers get by this challenging time?

Dieter Bimberg: Specialized conferences, where you meet your colleagues and peers of the field deliver much more than just listening to a presentation: You meet people, who have a social relevance, and can spontaneously interact and further develop your thoughts during intense discussions. I benefitted a lot from face to face meetings and discussions in the past by jointly developing and testing new ideas. Remote conferences are also important: One avoids costly and time-consuming travelling and listens only to those talks, which are interesting for you. In the future we will have both. Right now, I see however an inflation of dubious on-line events, which are not primarily organized by experts of a given field, but by money making groups having just a computer and which are easy to organize.

Cut downs of research funding and phasing out young researchers is no good idea. In research one needs continuity in transferring ideas and technical skills. Having e.g. in my field a high end test lab for photonic devices it will take you several years to catch up again, if you cut the education of young people, where one layer of experience builds up on the previous one. Also, industry needs a continuous supply of freshly educated scientists.

《Light》記者:在過去幾年,我們的Light Conferences也有幸能得到您的深度關注,包括您曾經擔任我們的大會主席和大會報告發言人。當下,在這個艱難的疫情時期,來自世界各地的科學家們都在嘗試將學術會議和報告轉移到網上,從而保證科研與交流的正常運轉。您喜歡這種非面對面的方式嗎?您認為這種網上會議的趨勢會持續多久?同樣由於COVID-19,世界上很多大學都面臨著科研經費的削減的問題,數百萬科研人員,尤其是年輕的科研人員都受到了影響,能否提一些建議幫助我們的年輕科研人員度過這個時期?

Dieter Bimberg: 在專業的線下會議上,你會遇到你的同事和同行,而不僅僅只是聽一個報告:你會認識一些人,我們可以在熱烈的討論中自發地互動並進一步發展我們的想法。

過去,我就從面對面的會議和討論中受益匪淺,共同開展和測試了很多新想法。遠程會議也很重要:你可以避免昂貴和耗時的旅行,只聽那些你感興趣的東西。我認為,未來我們將兩者兼而有之。但是需要注意的是,現在有一些不怎麼樣的線上活動正在擴張,這些活動的發起人不是某一領域的專家,而是一些只要有一台計算機只管賺錢就夠了的人。

削減研究經費和逐步淘汰年輕的研究人員不是一個好主意。在研究中,研究人員在轉化思想和技術的時候,需要連續性的支持。舉例而言,如果是在我的領域里的一個高端光子器件測試實驗室,知識和經驗是累積的,是建立在之前基礎上的,所以如果減少對年輕人的教育和支持,回頭就需要幾年的時間才能重新趕上。此外,工業界也需要不斷新鮮的科學家血液。

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Dieter Bimberg院士在Light會議

Chenzi Guo: Your authored book, Quantum dot heterostructures, is called the bible in quantum dots, as I quoted from a peer. I personally enjoyed reading this book a lot. It was very careful, enlightening, informative and practical. Could you share some ideas what elements a good book should include and recommend some books for students who major in semiconductor lasing, nanophotonic devices, nanomaterials and nanostructures?

Dieter Bimberg: A good book should put its subject in a frame of what has been done by others before – we are always standing on the shoulders of titans and we are never walking alone – and should show where we might go, a little speculation is always good for the phantasy of the reader.

Good books on lasing and devices exist a lot, so the authors of books seeing what I recommend shall forgive me, not mentioning their work:

1. my students like to read as an introduction the book by S.-L. Chuang 《Physics Of Optoelectronic Devices》, New York: Wiley, 1995

2. Recent work on semiconductor lasing, nanophotonic devices, nanomaterials and nanostructures was edited or authored by me and my students:

a) nanomaterials:

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov and D. Bimberg, 「Epitaxy of Nanostructures」, Springer 2004

D. Bimberg ed. , 「Semiconductor Nanostructures」, Springer 2008

b) Devices: G. Eisenstein and D. Bimberg eds., 「Green Photonics and Electronics」, Springer 2017

《Light》記者:您的著作之一,《量子點異質結構》,被稱為量子點領域的聖經(這裏我是引用了一位同行的話)。我個人也從這本書中受益匪淺,它很準確,有啟發性,信息量大且實用性強。您能否分享一下您認為一本好書應該包括哪些要素嗎?同時,向我們主修半導體激光、納米光子器件、納米材料和納米結構等專業的學生推薦一些書籍?

Dieter Bimberg:一本好書應該把它的主題放在別人已經做過的事情的框架中——我們總是站在巨人的肩膀上,我們從不孤獨行走——並且應該顯示出將來可能會怎麼發展,小小的猜測總是有助於讀者的想象。關於激光及其器件的好書很多,所以我這裏列舉幾個,不能一應而全,希望那些好書的作者不要因為我沒有提及他們的著作而怪我。

1. 我的學生喜歡讀S.L. Chuang的《Physics Of Optoelectronic Devices》。

2. 我個人或是我的學生近期的一些關於半導體激光、納米光子學器件、納米材料和納米結構方面的著作:

V. A. Shchukin, N. N. Ledentsov and D. Bimberg, 「Epitaxy of Nanostructures」, Springer 2004

D. Bimberg ed. , 「Semiconductor Nanostructures」, Springer 2008

Devices: G. Eisenstein and D. Bimberg eds., 「Green Photonics and Electronics」, Springer 2017

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《Light》記者介紹

郭宸孜,現為中國科學院長春光學精密機械與物理研究所(長春光機所)員工,任長春光機所 Light學術出版中心副總編、卓越計劃高起點新刊《eLight》編輯部主任、卓越計劃領軍期刊《 Light: Science & Applications》(《Light》)責任編輯。曾獲第三屆全國科技期刊青年編輯大賽一等獎、中國科協優秀科技論文處理編輯表彰、中科院科技出版先進個人獎、長春光機所先進個人、中科院長春分院「青年先鋒」等重要獎項,主持了卓越計劃高起點新刊、中國科技期刊編輯學會基金課題、吉林省科協科普項目多個國家、省部級項目,作為共作者出版譯著《光學與光子學:美國不可或缺的關鍵技術》(科學出版社),在 Nano Today, Nanomaterials, Science China Materials, Applied Optics,Applied Sciences, Nanotechnology, Japan Science and Technology Agency(日本科技振興機構),編輯學報等發表文章 18 篇。曾代表《Light》出席聯合國國際光日籌備委員會,在國際學術會議作邀請報告 20 余次。

記者招募

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